In 1899, five years after Dreyfus was first imprisoned, his trial was reopened thanks to the efforts of numerous politicians, military figures and intellectuals who had accumulated evidence to refute the false case against Dreyfus. But to everyone’s surprise, instead of releasing Dreyfus, the court found him guilty once more and sentenced him to ten years in prison, though it had the decency to withdraw his life sentence. It was not until the French President granted amnesty to Dreyfus that the tables turned. In 1903 after his rehabilitation, Dreyfus sent a letter to the “Garde des Sceaux” (Lord Chancellor) demanding a revision of his trial. Finally, in 1906, the court recognized Dreyfus’s innocence and annulled the false verdict rendered against him earlier.
Representing 1, 2 and 3 in as many lines as the number represented worked well. [ citation needed ] The Brahmin Indians simplified 4 by joining its four lines into a cross that looks like the modern plus sign. The Shunga would add a horizontal line on top of the numeral, and the Kshatrapa and Pallava evolved the numeral to a point where the speed of writing was a secondary concern. The Arabs ' 4 still had the early concept of the cross, but for the sake of efficiency, was made in one stroke by connecting the "western" end to the "northern" end; the "eastern" end was finished off with a curve. The Europeans dropped the finishing curve and gradually made the numeral less cursive, ending up with a glyph very close to the original Brahmin cross.