This is a mentor-guided course. This is the last course where the learner completes the formal Oral Defense of the Doctoral Project and then prepares and submits the Doctoral Project for University approval. An approved Doctoral Project is required to complete this class.
Another quasi-experimental approach involves time-series data, in which researchers observe one group of subjects repeatedly both before and after the administration of the treatment. This can be done in a controlled experimental setting, but this design also lends itself well to a more naturalistic setting in which data are commonly collected on a group of subjects and researchers are interested in the effects of some treatment or intervention which they did not experimentally apply. For example, researchers might examine the yearly test scores of students at a given school for several years both before and after the implementation of an extended school day; in this situation the yearly tests scores represent the time-series data and the change to an extended school day is the naturally occurring, quasi-experimental treatment. This approach is an improvement over the single pre-test/post-test design, which is unable to demonstrate long-term effects. The time-series data design can be further improved by including a control group which is also examined over time but which does not experience the treatment; such a design is termed a multiple time-series design.