If the 17th Century represented the third trimester of a birthing process then surely our infant burst from the womb during the 18th Century into a bright new environment that could and would support the rapid growth of a world in an infancy that was frantically striving to take its first steps toward adulthood. At this point I would like to delve into what I consider some lasting effects that were spawned from the magnificent 17th Century and to examine some results that arose from the interactions the science which grew from the 17th Century and left human trails across the sands of time.
However, Newton's most important work came in laying the foundation for modern physics and likely helping in part to discover calculus, the mathematics that made his theories of the natural world explainable. Newton's Three Laws of Motion and his conclusion that gravity was the main force acting upon the planets and stars were enumerated in his landmark work, Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy , published in 1687. These laws and the mathematics that explain the movements of planets are still studied and used today by physicists and astronomers alike.
In any community of scientists, Kuhn states, there are some individuals who are bolder than most. These scientists, judging that a crisis exists, embark on what Kuhn calls revolutionary science , exploring alternatives to long-held, obvious-seeming assumptions. Occasionally this generates a rival to the established framework of thought. The new candidate paradigm will appear to be accompanied by numerous anomalies, partly because it is still so new and incomplete. The majority of the scientific community will oppose any conceptual change, and, Kuhn emphasizes, so they should. To fulfill its potential, a scientific community needs to contain both individuals who are bold and individuals who are conservative. There are many examples in the history of science in which confidence in the established frame of thought was eventually vindicated. It is almost impossible to predict whether the anomalies in a candidate for a new paradigm will eventually be resolved. Those scientists who possess an exceptional ability to recognize a theory's potential will be the first whose preference is likely to shift in favour of the challenging paradigm. There typically follows a period in which there are adherents of both paradigms. In time, if the challenging paradigm is solidified and unified, it will replace the old paradigm, and a paradigm shift will have occurred.