Stark documented that even back in the 7th century, Christians publicly opposed slavery. The bishop and apologist Anselm (c. 1033–1109) forbade enslavement of Christians, and since just about everyone was considered a nominal Christian, this practically ended slavery. Then the famous theologian and apologist Thomas Aquinas (c. 1225–1274) denounced the practice. Several popes supported this from 1435, and Pope Paul III (1468–1549) gave three major pronouncements against slavery in 1537, . Sublimus Dei — On the Enslavement and Evangelization of Indians in the New World . As Stark writes, ‘ The problem wasn’t that the [Church] leadership was silent. It was that almost nobody listened .’
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"Thomas Jefferson in his lifetime grows up on his father's plantation, which sits right on the boundary of Indian Country," Wilder writes. "And so Native people are actually passing through that region all the time," Wilder said of Jefferson, who studied at William and Mary and later founded the University of Virginia. "He grows up on slave plantations and so Jefferson emerges in his adulthood as someone who is actually constantly writing about and thinking about the physical and mental characteristics of Native Americans and Africans, and he exports a lot of that knowledge to Europe and he shares it with intellectual friends around the world."