1 The . Government Principles direct that, “…housing, care, and feeding…must be directed by a veterinarian or other scientist trained and experienced in the proper care, handling, and use of the species being maintained or studied” (VII) and that, “Investigators and other personnel shall be appropriately qualified and experienced for conducting procedures on living animals. Adequate arrangements shall be made for their in-service training, including the proper and humane care and use of laboratory animals” (VIII).
2 The Health Research Extension Act of 1985 requires that, “scientists, animal technicians, and other personnel involved with animal care, treatment, and use…have available to them instruction or training in the humane practice of animal maintenance and experimentation…” (Sec. 495.(c) (1) (B)).
3 The PHS Policy requires that institutions seeking an Assurance provide “a synopsis of training or instruction in the humane practice of animal care and use, as well as training or instruction in research or testing methods that minimize the number or animals required to obtain valid results and minimize animal distress, offered to scientists, animal technicians, and other personnel involved in animal care, treatment or use” ( . ); that medical care for animals will be provided by “qualified” veterinarians ( . ) and that, “Personnel conducting procedures on the species being maintained or studied will be appropriately qualified and trained in those procedures” ( . ).
Animal sexual behavior takes many different forms, even within the same species and the motivations for and implications of their behaviors have yet to be fully understood. Bagemihl's research shows that homosexual behavior, not necessarily sex , has been documented in about 500 species as of 1999, ranging from primates to gut worms .   Homosexuality in animals is seen as controversial by social conservatives because it asserts the naturalness of homosexuality in humans , while others counter that it has no implications and is nonsensical to equate natural animal behaviors to morality .   Animal preference and motivation is always inferred from behavior. Thus homosexual behavior has been given a number of terms over the years. The correct usage of the term homosexual is that an animal exhibits homosexual behavior , however this article conforms to the usage by modern research,     applying the term homosexuality to all sexual behavior ( copulation , genital stimulation , mating games and sexual display behavior ) between animals of the same sex.